Ultimately, the argument from invention and the argument from original appropriation dovetail, since behind both lie the intuition that through intellectual labor one makes an original acquisition of a profitable object. The difficult part of the justification is to show that one is morally entitled to the profit which can be made from regarding the ownership of the expression of ideas as an exclusive entitlement. The claim of a just property interest in the potential distribution of the object depends upon first regarding that object as an abstract metaphysical entity, but neither argument really justifies the existence of such an entity. The form of the argument is: If we regard intellectual property as an ideal object, then it is analogous to productive land. Alternatively, we could hold to the view that the production of a book is like the production of any other object which requires some ingenuity and labor to produce. Then the form of the argument would be: If we regard intellectual property as the objects produced by the joint labor of authors and printers, then it is analogous to the sale of a commodity. In the case of a book, the commodity happens to be reproducible, whether by copying the book longhand or by printing or photocopying. We can compare the book's reproducibility to the reproducibility of any other object. Of course, these alternatives don't tell us which way we should frame the argument, but they show that we could think quite coherently of intellectual property without the metaphysical abstraction which Blackstone's argument entails. We either need a way of choosing between the two ways of framing the argument or we need to recognize that the general argument itself is based on a consideration of social and personal interests extrinsic to the nature of intellectual activity itself. (9)
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For better or worse, peer-to-peer file sharing has completely revolutionized how people discover and consume music during the course of the last fifteen years.
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Though copyright notices are no longer required, before 1986 failure to include a copyright notice, or use of an incorrect notice potentially shortens the period of copyright protection. Materials that can be verified as meeting either of these criteria may have fallen out of the control of the photographer of copyright holder. This creates yet another category of public domain as potential resources for researchers and publishers.